Total Pageviews

Tuesday, September 26, 2017

Case Study and Case Report. 2017; 7(4): 83 - 87.

Prasad S, Prasad T, Amerva T. Post - dengue elevation of serum transaminase until returning to normal limit: long term follow-up. Case Study Case Rep. 2017; 7(4): 83 - 87.


Dengue is a common problem in tropical medicine. This infection can manifest as acute febrile illness and might result in hemorrhagic complication. Long term complication due to dengue is rarely mentioned. The hepatic dysfunction due to dengue is observable and the problem can last for a long term. In this case report, the authors report on an interesting case of post dengue elevation of serum transaminase. The long term follow-up of the case until returning to normal limit was done. The period that requires for returning to normal is 8 months. The elevation of serum transaminase enzymes after acute dengue infection is possible and it can spontaneous resolve without any requirement for specific management. Nevertheless, the time required for returning to normal is long. Based on our best knowledge, this is the first world report on the closed follow-up of case with post dengue elevation of serum transaminase.

Key words:  Dengue, transaminase

Wednesday, August 16, 2017

Case Study and Case Report 2017; 7(3): 76 - 82.

Yunus M, Purwahidayat A, Srianto P, Mufasirin, Legowo D, Ferdiansyah H. Analysis of the
cause of Cetacean “short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus)” strandings on
Probolinggo Coast, East Java Province, Indonesia. Case Study Case Rep. 2017; 7(3): 76 - 82.

Indonesian waters is one of the habitat and simultaneously a migration path so many different
species of mammals of Cetacean (whales and dolphins) and Sirenia. Whales and dolphins are
a group of aquatic animals that are often washed up on the shores of Indonesia. Strandings of
marine mammals requires fast action and precise handling, particularly those that are still
alive so it can be saved, as a safeguard and preservation. The researchers do not have a
definitive reason why stranded marine mammals, but there are many theories and analytical
approach through the predictions are used to determine the cause. The social life of animals,
bad weather, extreme ocean waves and animals follow prey to the beach are some of the most
likely causes. Some of the other causes that have been identified is a disease, a parasitic
infection, the growth of harmful algae, injuries from boat collisions or entangled, trauma,
hunger and military exercises using special sonar. The current of the tides are strong and vary
from day to day, causing indeterminate conditions for navigation are predicted as one of the
causes. Decreased oxygen levels and water salinity are thought to be among the causes that
led dozens of short-finned pilot whales to wash up on a beach in Randupitu village, Gending
district, Probolinggo regency, East Java. Data from the Meteorology, Climatology and
Geophysics Agency (BMKG) Juanda, Surabaya, reveals that it was likely that strong currents
in the northern Java Sea had carried the pilot whales ashore. According to the data, strong
winds of more than 28 knots caused high seas with 2 to 3.5 meter waves. The high waves also
caused oxygen level decreases deep below the surface and lowered water salinity, which was
accompanied with a sea level rise. The BMKG added that these three elements had led deep
water fish to migrate to the surface, leading many of them to become stuck in shallow waters.

Keywords: Pilot whales, analysis, cause, stranding

Tuesday, July 18, 2017

Case Study and Case Report 2017; 7(3): 65 - 75.

Salmanoglu E, Kurutas EB. Effects of 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy on
oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers in patients. Case Study Case Rep. 2017; 7(3): 65 - 75

We aimed to define the effects of Technetium-99m Methylendiphosphonate bone
scintigraphy on oxidative/nitrosative stress in patients after intravenous injection and
compared to healthy control group. Forty patients for bone scintigraphy and forty healthy
control group were included this study. The age range was similar in both groups (18-74
years). The blood samples were taken from patients 2 hour after intravenous injection of 20
mCi (740 MBq) Technetium-99m Methylendiphosphonate. The activities of catalase,
superoxide dismutase and malondialdeyhde levels were measured as oxidative stress
biomarkers and nitric oxide and nitrotyrosine levels were measured as nitrosative stress
biomarkers in patients and control group. There were no significant differences according to
both age and sex between two groups (p˃0.05). Activities of catalase and superoxide
enzymes and malondialdeyhde levels in patients were increased in patients compared to
controls (p<0.05). Also, nitric oxide and nitrotyrosine levels in patients were higher than
control group (p<0.05). Technetium-99m Methylendiphosphonate may cause both oxidative
and nitrosative stress in patients. Also antioxidant defense of the patients was higher
compared to healthy subjects possibly due to a compensatory response to ionising radiation in
the living cells and thereby protects the cells against oxidative/nitrosative damage.
Keywords: Bone scintigraphy, oxidative/nitrosative stress, catalase, superoxide dismutase,
malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, nitrotyrosine

Saturday, July 8, 2017

Case Study and Case Report 2017; 7(3): 53 - 64.

Mól N, Ptak K, Zasada M, Końska K, Pilch M, Knapp A, Kwinta P. Hunter Syndrome complicated by a communicating hydrocephalus and arachnoid cysts at a very young age. Case Study Case Rep. 2017; 7(3): 53 - 64.


Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is an X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by deficient activity of iduronate 2-sulfatase, which regulates  lysosomal catabolism of the glycosaminoglycans. As a consequence, undegraded dermatan and heparan sulfates accumulate in all the tissues and organs of the body, including the central nervous system, where they cause irreversible changes. Some of the neurological manifestations include behavioral problems, mental retardation or cognitive deterioration, ventriculomegaly, hydrocephalus, compressive myelopathy, seizures or hearing loss. This report describes an infant boy diagnosed with MPS II who presented with an acute communicating hydrocephalus and arachnoid cysts at 9 months of age. The patient was diagnosed with MPS II shortly after birth because of his positive family history. At that time he did not present any physical manifestation of the disease, all the imaging studies of the head, abdomen and cardiac function were normal. He was started on enzyme replacement therapy with Elaprase®, which he received every week at our Clinic. Such frequent visits allowed for an immediate diagnosis of sudden increase of the intracranial pressure and the timely surgical intervention. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with MPS II, who developed acute hydrocephalus requiring surgical implementation of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt at such a young age.

Keywords: Hunter Syndrome, hydrocephalus, arachnoid cyst

Monday, June 19, 2017

Case Study and Case Report 2017; 7(3): 49 – 52.

Natekar AA, Agarwal S, Sengupta A. Cervical Aspergillosis in a post-menopausal female- A case report. Case Study Case Rep. 2017; 7(3): 49 – 52.


Fungal infections are commonly encountered in the female genital tract on routine cervical smear examination, the most common being candida. Cervico-vaginal aspergillosis infection is rarely reported. We report a case of aspergillus infection in an immunocompetent 55 year old post-menopausal female who presented with white discharge per vaginum. Initially the cervical pap smears showed only inflammatory changes. On per speculum examination the cervix appeared congested and ulcerated. Cervical biopsy was performed which showed sheets and balls of aspergillus fungus with areas of necrosis. PAS staining further confirmed the diagnosis. Serological tests performed were negative. Patient was started on antifungal and repeat biopsy from cervix did not show any fungal hyphae.

Keywords: Aspergillus, immunocompetent, cervix

Saturday, June 3, 2017

Case Study and Case Report 2017; 7(2): 46 - 48.

Tiemsiriwatt W, Chandriga S, Kuillinorman L. Anti HIV seropositive, false positive, influenza vaccination and medical sue: a story. Case Study Case Rep. 2017; 7(2): 46 – 48.


The present emerging of influenza in several countries increase the number of influenza vaccination. The increased incidence of adverse effect due to influenza vaccination can also be seen. Here, the author would like to discuss on an interesting case of non AEFI but complicated episode outcome of influenza vaccination. This is a case of medical sue due to the false positive report of Anti HIV seropositive to a healthy subjects from a medical laboratory in a private hospital.

Keywords: Influenza, vaccination, HIV

Wednesday, May 17, 2017

Case Study and Case Report 2017; 7(2): 35 – 45.

Olaifa AK, Oguntoye CO. Type I free gas bloat vagal indigestion in a 10-month old west
African dwarf goat: a case report. Case Study Case Rep. 2017; 7(2): 35 – 45.


Type I vagal indigestion, or failure of eructation, results in free-gas bloat and has been
attributed to inflammatory lesions in the vicinity of the vagus nerve, such as localized
peritonitis, adhesions (usually after an episode of traumatic reticuloperitonitis), or chronic
pneumonia with anterior mediastinitis. Bloat is an over distention of the rumen and reticulum
with the gases of fermentation. Free gas bloat is a secondary tympany where vagus
indigestion or other innervations disorders, esophageal papilloma, lymphosarcoma and
esophageal foreign bodies are examples of its causes. A 10-month old West African Dwarf
buck was presented at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital University of Ibadan with a
distended abdomen which was more towards the left side following a fight between the buck
and another buck in the same pen. The distention occurred gradually over a week. Physical
examination was performed and a left ping was heard on percussion of the distention after
which the animal was taken into the theatre for exploratory rumenotomy. When bloating
occurs, these gases cannot escape, they continue to build up and cause severe distention of
the abdomen, reflected by discomfort and acute pain, furthermore bloat cause decrease
respiratory rate due to compression of the thorax followed by Dyspnea and difficult
breathing, however the compression might affected heart lead to increase its rate and intensity
causing reduced performance, activity and death in some cases.

Keywords: Vagal indigestion, bloat, rumenotomy, buck